Agent 15 Poisoning
Author: Geoffrey M Fitzgerald, MD; Chief Editor: Duane C Caneva, MD, MSc
“Incapacitating agent” is a military term used to denote an agent that temporarily and nonlethally impairs the performance of an enemy by targeting the central nervous system (CNS). Of those substances investigated by the military, anticholinergic agents best fit these criteria and are stable enough for use in war. As far back as 184 BC, Hannibal’s army used belladonna plants to induce disorientation in enemies. In 1672, the Bishop of Muenster used belladonna-containing grenades in his campaigns.
Approximately 300 years later, the US Army explored several classes of drugs, as well as noise, microwaves, and photostimulation, and found none to be as promising incapacitating agents as the anticholinergics. Stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamines, and nicotine were tested but did not have the potency to be an airborne threat. Depressants (eg, barbiturates, opiates, neuroleptics) similarly were found to be impractical for battlefield use. The unpredictable behavior incurred by psychedelic agents (ie, lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD], phencyclidine [PCP]) led to an early halt in the testing of that particular class of drugs.
By the mid-1960s, after a decade of tests, the US Army concluded that the long-acting anticholinergic 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (BZ) was the best candidate for weaponization and deployment. BZ subsequently was stockpiled in American military arsenals from the mid-1960s through the late-1980s. The US military was not alone in its attempt to develop an incapacitating agent in the 20th century. Seven years after the conclusion of the Gulf War, the British Foreign Ministry revealed, in February 1998, the existence of an Iraqi chemical warfare agent believed to be a glycolate anticholinergic, similar, if not identical, to BZ. It was dubbed “Agent 15.” Little information is known publicly about Agent 15. For this reason, also refer to CBRNE – Incapacitating Agents, 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate.